Welcome to the FOCAL archive

The Canadian Foundation for the Americas (FOCAL) is no longer in operation. This website documents FOCAL's activities and accomplishments throughout its existence. Thank you for your interest in the work of FOCAL.

December 2008, Focus on Gender
Vol. 7, No. 9

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Note from the Editors - No Crisis Response Can Afford to Forget Gender

Kate McInturff and Peter Moore

Building Export Markets for Peruvian Women
Heather Gibb

Uneven Progress Made in Closing the Gender Gap in the Americas
Kate McInturff

Countering Violence Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Latin America
Fernando D'Elio

Estrategias para combatir la violencia basada en la orientación sexual e identidad de género en América Latina
Fernando D'Elio

Gender, Health and Mobility: Health Concerns of Women Migrant Farm Workers in Canada
Janet McLaughlin

We Need Inclusive Communities for Women
Markus Gottsbacher

Necesitamos Comunidades Inclusivas para las Mujeres
Markus Gottsbacher

November 2008
Vol. 7, No. 8

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Note from the Editor - US Needs Change Beyond Elections
Peter Moore

Are Trends in Money Transfers to Latin America Shifting Downward?
Manuel Orozco

Obama, Cuba, and Latin America: Renewal and Reconciliation?
Archibald R.M. Ritter

Will Canada and Barack Obama Collide in the Americas?
Peter McKenna

Mexique: le nerf de la guerre anti-narcotique
Nathalie Gravel

Mexico: the core of the war against drugs
Nathalie Gravel

2008: Supply Shock in the Cuban Economy
Pavel Vidal Alejandro

September 2008
Vol. 7, No. 7

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Note from the Editor - Canada can be a leader among leaders
Peter Moore

Canada-Brazil Relationship Much Improved and Evolving
Paulo Cordeiro de Andrade Pinto, Ambassador of Brazil to Canada

Canada and Brazil in Haiti: Passing the military torch, but what of the moral one?
Kai Michael Kenkel

The Jamaican Diaspora’s Role in Jamaica’s National Development
Earl Jarrett

The Role of Micro-loans in the Cuban Economy, Today and in the Future
Karina Gálvez

Papel del Micropréstamo en la Economía Cubana Hoy y en el Futuro
Karina Gálvez

Crime and Violence: Civil Society Perspectives
Phil Gonzalez

Canada and the Americas, One Year After Mr. Harper’s Visit
Carlo Dade

July-August 2008
Vol. 7, No. 6

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Note from the Editor - A Summit of the Americas for Canadians
Peter Moore

Making the Fifth Summit the Finest So Far
Richard Feinberg

Why We Are Together
Peter Hakim

The Fifth Summit Needs a Big Idea to Stay Relevant
Paul Haslam

Summit Reform: Taking a Deeper Look
Racquel Smith

Energy Security and Energy Cooperation in the Americas
Anthony T. Bryan

The OAS at Sixty: Renaissance or Senescence?
John W. Graham

July 2008, Special Edition on Energy with the Inter-American Dialogue's Latin America Energy Advisor
Vol. 7 

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Note from the Guest Editor
Robert Simpson

Alberta Oil Sands: Sustainable Energy Security for the Americas?
Satya Das

Who Will Help Cuba Exploit Its Offshore Wealth?
Q & A with Vicki Huddleston, Jonathan Benjamin-Alvarado, Philip Peters

Latin America's National Oil Companies Differ Greatly
J. Matteson Ellis

Will Argentina Make It Through the Southern Hemisphere Winter?
Q & A with Maria Velez de Berliner, José Martinez de Hoz, Juliette Kerr, Luciano Gremone

Are Fuel Subsidies Helping Latin America?
Jeremy Martin

What Does a World Bank Report Mean for Biofuels in the Region?
Q & A with Cláudio Frischtak, C. Ford Runge, Roger Tissot

U.S. Policy and Energy Security in the Americas
Johanna Mendelson Forman and Susana Moreira

June 2008
Vol. 7, No. 5

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Note from the Editor - Canadian Justice?
Peter Moore

Ecuador's Mineral Crossroads: Canada's Commitment?
Ian Harris

No Consensus on PEMEX
Olga Abizaid

Will Millions More People in Poverty Really Change Agricultural Policies? Focus on Haiti
Amélie Gauthier

Canada and Latin America: Rocks Ahead?
Carlo Dade

Securing Health Services in Guatemala for the Families of Migrant Workers
Barbara MacLaren

Scratching the Surface of Social Protection for Migrants
Eleanor Sohnen

Mexican Military Not a Long-term Solution to Drug War
Alejandro Sánchez Nieto

May 2008
Vol. 7, No. 4

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Note from the Editor - Bolivia's Elusive Middle Ground
Rachel Schmidt

Campaign Rhetoric and Real Policy Choices:
The U.S. Scramble for Votes

Abraham F. Lowenthal

Access Denied?
Debating Freedom of Information in Venezuela

Rachel Schmidt

Beyond 0.7 Per Cent:
Targeting Investment and Trade

Danielle Goldfarb

The Innovation Gap:
Technology and Pharmaceuticals in Latin America

Marta Oprisan

Cuba’s Convertible Peso:
Monetary Duality and Economic Distortion

Pavel Vidal Alejandro

El peso convertible de Cuba:
La dualidad monetaria y distorsión económica

Pavel Vidal Alejandro

April 2008
Vol. 7, No. 3

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Note from the Editor - The "New" Face of Inequality

Rachel Schmidt

Trade Agreements and Prosperity: Are We Overselling the Link?
Laura Ritchie Dawson

The Fight against Poverty in Latin America
Inés Bustillo

Trade Related Technical Assistance and the New Trade Policy Agenda
Brian McKay

Inequality in the Ecuadorian Andes:
Jambi Huasi and Indigenous Women’s Health

Carrie Dickenson

Canada and Colombia: The Prospects of Free Trade
Whitney Ersman

Gauging Free Trade Agreements: Why Big Expectations Mean Bigger Enemies
Vladimir Torres

March 2008, Special Edition on Energy
Vol. 7

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Note from the Guest Editor - Examining Energy Security
Jean Pierre Chabot

Can Local Communities Benefit from Energy Development?
Kathryn Hewlett-Jobes

Indigenous Peoples and Energy Development: A Matter of Respect
David Lertzman

Dutch Disease: A Threat to Latin America’s Current Growth Spurt?
Albert Berry

Cuba’s Green Gold
Jorge R. Piñon

Sources of Financing, Risks, and Premiums: Funding Options for Energy Projects
Carlton Osakwe

Unlocking the Potential of the Canadian Energy Industry in the Americas
Phil Gonzalez

March 2008
Vol. 7, No. 2

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Note from the Editor - Castro's Quiet Exit
Rachel Schmidt

Youth Employment Strategies:
Developing Human Capital in Brazil

Jenna-Dawn Shervill

The Ironies of Colombia Free Trade
Joachim Bamrud

Costa Rica: Development at a Crossroads
Peter Krupa

Good “Politics,” Bad Policy:
Washington’s Approach to Latin America

Adam Isacson

Advancing the Rights of Migrant Women
Barb MacLaren interviews Tanya Basok

Shifting Political Identities:
Gender Roles in Venezuela’s ‘New’ Citizenship
Jennifer Peirce

High Noon at the Orinoco River:
Venezuela and Exxon-Mobil

Luis A. Pacheco

February 2008, Special Edition: Media and Democracy in the Americas
Vol. 7

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Note from the Guest Editor
Laurie Cole

Pluralism and Media Concentration in Latin America
Martín Becerra

Caught in the Crossfire: Media and Democracy in Mexico
Juan Humberto Vital

Fighting Corruption in Latin America: Media Challenges
Ricardo Uceda

Venezuela and the Invisible Gag of Self-Censorship
Ewald Scharfenberg

Media Concentration and Challenges to Pluralism
Claudia Lagos Lira

All above articles are also available in Spanish

January-February 2008
Vol. 7, No. 1

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Note from the Editor - Looking Ahead for 2008
Rachel Schmidt

The Challenges of Female Entrepreneurship
FOCAL Q&A with the Honourable Helena Guergis, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and International Trade

Canada’s Role in a Regional Crime Spree
Rachel Schmidt and Carlo Dade

Cuba: Waiting for Change
Cristina Warren

Alternative Development Approaches:
A Conversation with Brazil’s Gilberto Gil
Racquel Smith

Defining Canada’s Role in the World
Jason Diceman

Protecting Land Rights:
The Effects of Private Investment in Indigenous Territories
Omaira Mindiola

Protegiendo los derechos a la tierra:
Los resultados de la inversión privada en los territorios de los pueblos indígenas
Omaira Mindiola

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