Welcome to the FOCAL archive

The Canadian Foundation for the Americas (FOCAL) is no longer in operation. This website documents FOCAL's activities and accomplishments throughout its existence. Thank you for your interest in the work of FOCAL.

December 2006-January 2007
Vol. 5, No. 10 


Good Foreign Policy Equals Good Domestic Policy
Rick Waugh

The Benefit of the Doubt
Sergio Ramírez

Counterpoint: Argentina and Canada: Looking at the Future
Victor Armony and Lila Kowalewski

A New Era for Human Rights
Omaira Mindiola

Excellent Signals in the Canada-Mexico Relationship
Olga Abizaid

El Beneficio de la Duda
Sergio Ramírez

November 2006
Vol. 5, No. 9


Canada and Democratic Development Overseas
John W. Graham

General Elections in Brazil: When Lula Faces Corruption
Sylvain F. Turcotte

Extractive Industries and Sovereignty over Natural Resources in Peru: The Case of the Mining Sector
José De Echave

Bolivia: Difficult Conditions for Reaching Agreements in the Constituent Assembly
José Blane

October 2006
Vol. 5, No. 8 


Haiti: Time for Haitians to Make Some Hard Choices
Carlo Dade

Not So Cooperative: Venezuela’s Proposed Law of International Cooperation
Laurie Cole

Cuba: The Role of the International Community
Joaquín Roy

“Chronicle of a Death Foretold” The Presidential Election in Ecuador
Pablo Andrade A.

September 2006 
Vol. 5, No. 7 


A Lengthy Electoral Process
Mauricio Merino

Cuba’s International Development Assistance: A Model for the Non-Aligned Movement?
Katrin Hansig

Looking for a Map? The 30th Meeting of the Mercosur Council
Sean Burges

The Democratic Charter and the Transition in Cuba
Humberto De La Calle

Un Largo Proceso Electoral
Mauricio Merin

July-August 2006
Vol. 5, No. 6 


Fidel Castro Temporarily Hands Over Power to His Brother Raúl
Ana Faya

The Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba: Oops, They Did It Again
Dan Erikson

The New Peruvian Scenario
Aldo Panfichi (also featured in Spanish)

Uribe’s Second Term: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
Ana María Bejarano

June 2006
Vol. 5, No. 5


The Mexican Presidential Elections: Too Close to Call
Benito Nacif

Cuba 2006: 'La Revolución Energética' 'Generates a 'Quick Fix'
Archibald Ritter

The OAS General Assembly in Santo Domingo: A Good Crew on the Bridge, but the Ship is Still Taking Water 
John W. Graham

Canadian Engagement in the Hemisphere: Looking Beyond Populism
Eduardo del Buey

May 2006, Special Edition on Indigenous Governance and Democracy in the Americas


Foreword: Indigenous Governance and Democracy in the Americas
Omaira Mindiola

Indigenous Peoples, Democracy and Governance in the Central Andean Region
Óscar del Álamo

An Indigenous Perspective on Cultural Diversity and Integration in Latin America 
Omaira Mindiola

Community Engagement With Indigenous Communities is Good Business
Don Clarke

The Challenges of the 'Politics of Recognition' in Mexico
Saloie Moreno Jaimes

May 2006
Vol. 5, No. 4


Too Little Ambition: Canada in the Hemisphere
Peter Hakim

Beyond El Muro
Carlos A. Rosales

Bridging the Ideological Divide: Cuban Doctors for Caribbean Recognition
Anthony P. Maingot

The Problem is not Nationalization: It's How Morales Did It
Vladimir Torres

April 2006
Vol. 5, No. 3


Made in North America
Olga Abizaid

Costa Rica: Democracy on Trial
Cecilia Cortés

Costa Rica’s Presidential Elections
Beth Schmierer

Open Debate or Signals of Conflict Within the Cuban Elite?
Ana Faya

St. Kitts and Nevis: Saying Goodbye to Sugar
Terry Nisbett

Immigrant Transnationalism in Canada: What We Don’t Know
Carlo Dade and Luz Rodríguez-Novoa

¿Apertura o señales de conflicto en la elite cubana?
Ana Faya

March 2006
Vol. 5, No. 2


Discussing Canada’s Agenda for the Americas: Suggested Guidelines for a Leadership Role
Vladimir Torres

Nicaragua’ Woes Threaten Region
Carlos A. Rosales

Haiti Elections: Challenges Ahead
Carlo Dade

Challenges in the 2006 Mexican Presidential Race
José Ramón López Rubí Calderón

Spain and Latin America: The Return of Autonomy
Francesc Bayo & Christian Freres

Mexico between Cuba and the United States...Again
Ana Covarrubias

Discutiendo la Agenda Canadiense para las Américas: Directrices Sugeridas para Asumir un Rol de Liderazgo
Vladimir Torres

January-February 2006
Vol. 5, No. 1


The Outsider as an Effect of the System: Peru’s Ollanta Humala
Maxwell A. Cameron

Cuba 2005: The “Alice in Wonderland” Economy
Jorge Pérez López

The Hong Kong WTO Ministerial and the FTAA
Donald R. Mackay

Venezuela: The Challenges of Electoral Disenchantment
Francine Jácome

The Importance of Monitoring the Impact of the CSME on Gender
Sherril A. Thompson

Indigenous Governance and Politics in the Americas
Omaira Mindiola 

(También disponible en español: “Gobernabilidad indígena y la política en América”)

Fiscal Decentralization and Human Development in Bolivia
Matthew Fuller


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