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The Canadian Foundation for the Americas (FOCAL) is no longer in operation. This website documents FOCAL's activities and accomplishments throughout its existence. Thank you for your interest in the work of FOCAL.

November-December 2005 
Vol. 4, No. 10


Cuba and Venezuela United? , y versión en español ¿La Unificación de Cuba y Venezuela?
Ana Faya

29-Member FTAA: Nothing to Get Excited About
Dean Foster

Op-Ed: Of Ideological Convergence and Power in Nicaragua
Manuel Orozco

The 2005 Argentina Election
Mark P. Jones

Prospects for CARICOM Single Market and Economy
W. Salas Hamilton

Summits in the Americas: Convergences and Divergences
Julieta Uribe

The Ibero-American General Secretariat: A starting point for coordinated policies on Cuba?
Susanne Gratius

Editorial – Mar del Plata Post Mortem and New Challenges

October 2005
Vol. 4, No. 9


Cuba’s Ranking in the Human Development Index of 2005 
Carmelo Mesa-Lago

Haitian Elections Delayed
Carlo Dade

North America: In the Aftermath of Katrina 
Olga Abizaid

The Social Conflict in the Ecuadorian Amazon 
Karen Andrade, Paúl Cisneros and Guillaume Fontaine

September 2005
Vol. 4, No. 8 


Brazil: The Good News Scandal?
Jean Daudelin

Elba Esther Gordillo and her Future in the PRI
Joy Langston

Hostages of Confrontation
Ana J. Faya

Indigenous Summits and the Summit of the Americas: Towards Continental Integration
Omaira Mindiola

Hu Jintao’s Visit to North America
Renato Balderrama

Editorial – Summit of the Americas 2009: Champion Needed

July-August 2005
Vol. 4, No. 7 


Immigrant Remittances Flows: Where Does Canada Fit?
Luz Rodríguez-Novoa

Cuban Women Struggle Even After Pay Raise
Ileana Fuentes

Editorial – Race in the Americas: Memím Pinguín is the Least of our Worries
Carlo Dade

June 2005
Vol. 4, No. 6 


The OAS as Democratic Policeman?
Sean W. Burges

A Welcome Uncertainty in Chilean Elections
John M. Carey

Consenso Cubano is Common Sense
Marifeli Pérez-Stable

FTAA Decline: Losing the Bath Water and the Baby
Laura Ritchie Dawson

May 2005
Vol. 4, No. 5 


China in the Caribbean: A Benign Dragon?
Dan Erikson

Democratic Breakdown and the Role of the International Community: The Case of Ecuador
Andrés Mejía Acosta

Challenges for Andean Democracies
Rodolfo Albán Guevara

Nicaragua and the Crisis of 2005
David Close

Editorial - Yet Another Summit
Eduardo del Buey

April 2005
Vol. 4, No. 4 


Democracy and the Rule of Law in Mexico’s 2006 Presidential Elections
Kenneth F. Greene

The Creation of the Ibero-American General Secretariat and the Implications for Latin America
Carlos Malamud

Barely Squeezing Through? US Politics and the Central American Free Trade Agreement
Eric Jacobstein

Cuba’s Revaluation(s) of the Peso(s): Back to the Future?
Nicholas Rowe

Editorial - Canada’s International Policy Statement: What Does it Mean for Latin America and the Caribbean?
John W. Graham

March 2005 
Vol. 4, No. 3 


The Meeting in Waco, Op-Ed
Andrés Rozental

Cuba in Geneva: The State of the Debate
Ana J. Faya

Bolivia: A Country in Constant Crisis
Fran Espinoza

Uruguay Shifts to the Left
Eduardo Gudynas and Diego Martino

The Vulnerabilities of Democracy and the Inter-American Democratic Charter
Jennifer McCoy

February 2005
Vol. 4, No. 2


The Role of Canada and the Inclusion of Latin Americans of African Descent
Judith Morrison

Colombia-Venezuela: Trade in a Volatile Relationship
Vladimir Torres

Two Days in the Sun: The CARICOM Heads of Government Meeting
Laurie Cole and Noel Waghor

The European Union-Cuba Relationship: More of the Same?
Joaquín Roy

The Perfect Storm: Foreign Affairs Hits an Uncharted Rock, Op-Ed
Don Mackay

January 2005
Vol. 4, No. 1


Bolivia’s 2004 Municipal Elections
Rachel Gisselquist

All Winners - No Losers?: Reflections on the Troubled State of Nicaragua’s Democracy
Manuela Aguilar

Political Instability in Ecuador: The Supreme Court
Adrián Bonilla

Post-MINUGUA Guatemala: Strengthening National Verification through Civilian Oversight and Social Auditing in Security and Defence
Colleen Duggan

Cuba: Highlights of 2004
Cristina Warren

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