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The Canadian Foundation for the Americas (FOCAL) is no longer in operation. This website documents FOCAL's activities and accomplishments throughout its existence. Thank you for your interest in the work of FOCAL.

FOCAL POINT, Vol. 3, No. 10 -
November/December 2004
Feature articles:

  • The Current Challenges of Venezuelan Democracy, by Ana María Sanjuán
  • Chile's 2004 Municipal Elections, by Carlos Huneeus
  • Cracking Nest Eggs, by Ana Yanes
  • The Impact of Higher Oil Prices on Oil Producing Countries: The Mexican Case, 
    by Isabelle Rousseau

FOCAL POINT Special Edition on Brazil-Canada Relations [November 2004] 
Feature articles:

  • Brazil Matters - FOCAL Editorial by Florencia Jubany
  • Brazil and Canada: Addressing the "Relationship Deficit", by Ambassador Valdemar Carneiro Leão Neto
  • Building Better Bridges Across the Hemisphere, by W.E. (Ted) Hewitt
  • Canada and Brazil 2004: Realizing the Potential, by Senator Mac Harb
  • On Brazil and Trade: Does the South-South Agenda Add Up? by Annette Hester
  • Canada-Brazil Relations: A View from Canadian Business, by Tim G. Plumptre
  • Future Common Agenda for Brazil and Canada: Synergies on New Issues in Agricultural Trade, by Jubany, Kerr and Loppacher
  • The Brazilian Economy, by Philippe Faucher
  • Brazilian Foreign Policy: Another Route or a New Step Forward? by Ricardo Sennes and Alexandre Barbosa
  • Lula's Liberal Social Policy, by Sylvain F. Turcotte

Canada et le Brésil - Édition spéciale
  • Le déficit relationnel du Brésil et du Canada; Ambassadeur Valdemar Carneiro Leão Neto
  • À la recherche de l’harmonie : le Canada et le Brésil à l’aube du XXI e siècle; W.E. (Ted) Hewitt
  • Canada–Brésil 2004 : Réaliser le potentiel; Senateur Mac Harb
  • Le Brésil et le commerce : Un programme Sud-Sud est-il envisageable? Annette Hester
  • Relations Canada–Brésil : Le point de vue du monde canadien des affaires; Tim G. Plumptre
  • Le programme futur Brésil–Canada : Travailler en synergie sur de nouveaux domaines du commerce des produits agricoles; Florencia Jubany, William A. Kerr et Laura J. Loppacher
  • L’économie brésilienne : « O Vôo de Galinha »; Philippe Faucher
  • La politique étrangère brésilienne : changement de parcours ou nouveau pas en avant? Ricardo Sennes et Alexandre Barbosa
  • Le sociolibéralisme de Lula; Sylvain F. Turcotte

Brazil/Canada - Ediçâo Especial
  • Reduzindo o “Déficit de Relacionamento”; Embaixador Valdemar Carneiro Leão Neto
  • Melhores Iniciativas de Aproximação em todo Hemisfério: as Relaçoes entre o Canadá e o Brasil no Início do Século XXI;W.E. (Ted) Hewitt
  • Canadá e Brasil 2004: Alcançando o Potencial; Senator Mac Harb
  • Brasil e o Comércio Internacional: Que Resultado Traz a Agenda Sul-Sul? Annette Hester
  • A Relação Canadá-Brazil Do Punto de Vista do Empresariado Canadense; Tim G. Plumptre
  • Futura Agenda Comum para o Brasil e o Canadá: Sinergias em Novas Questões no Comércio de Produtos Agrícolas ;Florencia Jubany, William A. Kerr, and Laura J. Loppacher
    A Economia Brasileira : “O Vôo de Galinha”; Philippe Faucher
  • A Política Externa Brasileira: Otro Caminho ou um Passo Enfrente? Ricardo Sennes and Alexandre Barbosa
  • A Política Social Liberal do Lula; Sylvain F. Turcotte

FOCAL POINT, Vol. 3, No. 9 - October 2004
Feature articles:

  • Mexico and Canada: The Good, the Bad, the Ugly…and the Pragmatic, by Isabel Studer
  • Bush, Kerry, and Castro: Stormy Relations Ahead, by Daniel Erikson
  • Local Elections in Ecuador: Continuity and Change, by Jorge León T.
  • Preventive Diplomacy at Work: Safeguarding Democracy in Nicaragua, by Claudia Paguaga
  • Selecting a New OAS Secretary General, by Donald Mackay
  • Keep the Summit the Leading Edge of the New OAS, by Robin Rosenberg

FOCAL POINT, Vol. 3, No. 8 - September 2004
Feature articles:

  • Miguel Ángel Rodríguez, New Secretary General of the OAS: Fast out of the Gate, by John W. Graham
  • The Crucial Role of the Latino Vote in the US Presidential Election, by Michael Shifter
  • Democratic Security in Colombia: At What Cost? by Daniel Bland
  • Transparency and Citizen Participation in Judicial Appointment in Bolivia, by Ramiro Orias
  • Caribbean: Politics of Aid and Neglect, by Carlo Dade

FOCAL POINT, Vol. 3, No. 7 - July/August 2004
Feature articles:

  • Peace in Colombia: Mission Impossible?, by Andrés Rozental
  • The Seven Lives of Hugo Chavez, by Maxwell A. Cameron
  • Succession in Mexico: The Last Temptation of an Old Regime, by Olga Abizaid
  • Hugo Chávez’ Triumph Is Also Fidel Castro’s, by Ana J. Faya
  • Mercoskeptics Gaining Strength: This Time in Brazil, by Florencia Jubany and Donald Mackay
  • Historic Recall Referendum Reaffirms Chavez’ Presidency, by Judy Meltzer

FOCAL POINT, Vol. 3, No. 6 - June 2004
Feature articles:

  • The CARICOM Initiative towards Haiti – A Case of Small States Diplomacy, by Colin Granderson
  • Venezuela’s Forthcoming Revocatory Referendum, by Margarita López Maya
  • Ecuador: Gutiérrez Walks the Alliance Tightrope, by Judy Meltzer
  • The Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba: Campaign Fantasy or Credible Blueprint? by Daniel P. Erikson
  • High Level – Low Output: The Quito General Assembly, by John W. Graham

FOCAL POINT Special Edition on Haiti
Feature articles:

  • Origins of the Current Crisis: The Chimeres of Washington, D.C, by Robert Maguire
  • The Organised Peasant Movement Caught Between a Rock and a Hard Place, by Chavannes Jean-Baptiste
  • Private Investment: The Cure for Chronic Ailments, by Yves Savain
  • Bases of a Successful Approach to Haiti, by James R. Morrell
  • And If Haitians Could Express Themselves? by Madeleine Desnoyers
  • Canada in Post-Aristide Haiti, by Carlo Dade

Numéro spécial sur Haïti en Français
À LA MÉMOIRE DE Marx Vilaire Aristide

  • Origines de la crise actuelle : les Chimères de Washington;Robert Maguire
  • Le mouvement paysan organisé pris entre le fer et l’enclume;Chavannes Jean-Baptiste
  • Investissement privé : le remède à des maux chroniques;Yves Savain
  • Bases d’une approche fructueuse de Haïti; James R. Morrell
  • Et si on laissait de la place aux Haïtiens? Madeleine Desnoyers
  • Le Canada dans le Haïti de l’après Aristide; Carlo Dade

FOCAL POINT, Vol. 3, No. 5 - May 2004
Feature articles:

  • Quito and Beyond: The OAS and the Crisis of Multilateralism in the Americas, by Robin L. Rosenberg
  • Cuba and Mexico: Changing the Rules of the Game, or the Game Itself?, by Ana Covarrubias
  • Panamanian Election Bulletin, by Raúl Leis R.
  • Concertation - Voices from Haiti, by Carlo Dade
  • A Regional Solution To Latin American Corruption, by Carlos March

FOCAL POINT, Vol. 3, No. 4 - April 2004
Feature articles:

  • Venezuela: Institutions, Indecision and Referendum Turmoil, by Judy Meltzer
  • Waiting for Justice: Beyond Nicaragua’s Alemán Case, by Claudia Paguaga
  • The Vote on Cuba and its Discontents, by Juan Antonio Blanco
  • Haiti: Un passé qui ne passe pas, by Carlo Dade
  • Editorial: Believing if Not Seeing the FTAA, by Donald R. Mackay

FOCAL POINT, Vol. 3, No. 3 - March 2004
Feature articles:

  • NAFTA at Ten: A Mexican View, by Gustavo Vega-Cánovas
  • The US-Central America Free-Trade Agreement, by Isaac Cohen
  • Concertación – El Salvador’s Post-Election Challenge, by Celia Medrano
  • Rebuilding Haiti: The Test for Canada, by Carlo Dade
  • Terrorism: A Controversial Term in Cuban Political Language, by Ana J. Faya

FOCAL POINT, Special Edition No.3 - March 2004
Migration and Remittances

FOCAL POINT, Vol. 3, No. 2 - February 2004
Feature articles:

  • Canada and the New North-South Divide in the Americas, by Gordon Mace
  • Bolivia: Mesa’s 90 Days are Up, by Laurie Cole
  • Canada and Illicit Drug Issues in the Americas, by Stephen Bolton
  • Civil Society Mobilizes for the Democratic Stability of the Dominican Republic, by Miriam Diaz
  • Culture and Controversy at the Havana Book Fair, by Ana J. Faya
  • Editorial: Haiti: Another Human Disaster by International Stalemate, by John W. Graham

    FOCAL POINT, Vol. 3, No. 1 - January 2004
    Feature articles:
  • The Special Summit of the Americas, by John W. Graham
  • US Trade Strategies and the FTAA Process, by Nicola Phillips
  • Guatemala’s New President and the Challenges Ahead, by Claudia Paguaga
  • Cuba’s Internet Paradox: New Restrictions Amidst Ongoing Upgrades, by Cristina Warren
  • Editorial: What is Paul Martin’s Americas Policy? by Paul Haslam

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